Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation

A Tribute to the Life and Scientific Legacies of Joshua Lederberg

Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop on May 20-21, 2008, to examine Dr. Lederberg's - scientist, Nobel laureate who died on February 2, 2008 - scientific and policy contributions to the marketplace of ideas in the life sciences, medicine, and public policy. The resulting workshop summary, Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation, demonstrates the extent to which conceptual and technological developments have, within a few short years, advanced our collective understanding of the microbiome, microbial genetics, microbial communities, and microbe-host-environment interactions.

The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance

It is a commonly held belief that athletes, particularly body builders, have greater requirements for dietary protein than sedentary individuals. However, the evidence in support of this contention is controversial. This book is the latest in a series of publications designed to inform both civilian and military scientists and personnel about issues related to nutrition and military service.

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Monday, January 21, 2008

Common Problems In Pediatric Neurology

Approximately 9% of the United States population will have a seizure sometime during their lives; 3% of these have epilepsy. At least 1% of children can be expected to have an afebrile seizure by 14 years of age. The risk of recurrent afebrile seizures ranges from 4 to 8.1 per 1000 by age 11. Principles of recognition, classification and treatment are similar in children and adults. Focal or partial seizures are perhaps more common than primary generalized seizures though recognition of focal onset is often difficult in young children. Some epilepsy syndromes are seen uniquely in children. The more common syndromes are described here.

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Handbook Of Clinical Neurology

Throughout the world, marine toxins cause a variety of acute, subchronic and chronic diseases in humans, as well as disease in other mammals, fish and birds (Table 1) (Hughes & Merson 1976, Southcott 1979, Baden 1983, ILO 1984, Sakamoto et al, 1987, Halstead 1988). The diseases in humans range from acute neurologic diseases, such as Ciguatera and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, to chronic dementia as reported with domoic acid exposure. The marine toxins cause disease predominantly through the ingestion of contaminated fish and shellfish, although certain diseases are via skin contact and even with inhalation. Therefore, the food web and the biomagnification of these toxins through the marine food web play important roles in the transmission of the marine toxin disease. These marine toxins bioaccumulate in a range of intermediate marine hosts (ie. the transvectors) both shellfish and fish prior to contact with humans; often there are additional secondary transvectors with further bioaccumulation (such as carnivore fish eating contaminated herbivores).

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Wednesday, January 16, 2008

Journal of Contemporary Neurology

The Paradox of Sleep; The Story of Dreaming Michel Jouvet, translated byLaurence Garey 1999, The MIT PressCambridge, Massachusetts Michel Jouvet, perhaps the world’sleading researcher on sleep anddream research, is considered respon-sible for the discovery of paradoxicalsleep— a “new” third state of thebrain as different from normal sleepas sleep is from waking. In The Para- dox of Sleep, Jouvet takes the reader ona scientific and sociological tour of thehistory of sleep and dream research,concluding with his own ideas on thefunction of dreaming.

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Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium africanum, both primarily from humans, and Mycobacterium bovis from cattle.

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Guidelines For the Control of Tuberculosis

Globally, every year, almost 9 million people develop tuberculosis and 3 million people die from the disease. More people are dying of tuberculosis today than ever before. Almost one third of the global total of infectious cases is detected in the Western Pacific Region, where the number of cases has almost doubled in the last decade to 900 000 cases.

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Wolff Parkinson White syndrome

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is characterised by attacks of rapid heart rate (tachycardia), which is shown in an electrocardiogram (ECG). In some people the ECG abnormality may be present without any symptoms such as tachycardia.

The heartbeat is regulated by electrical impulses that travel through the atria (upper chambers of the heart) to a knot of tissue known as the atrioventricular node, and then to the ventricles (lower chambers of the heart). Usually electrical impulses pause at the atrioventricular node before prompting the ventricles to contract.

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What is Parkinson

Parkinson’s disease is a common, slowly progressive, neurodegenerative disease. It results from the degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that controls movement. This degeneration results in a shortage of a neurotransmitter called dopamine, therefore, causing impaired movement. The first symptoms of the disease are usually seen later in life, 40 years or older. Parkinson’s disease is often called primary parkinsonism or idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease to distinguish it from other forms of parkinsonism.

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What You Need to Know about Parkinson's

As a person working in along-term care facility, we know how challenging your day can be. Youhave a hectic schedule and there are manydemands on you – including a large caseload andthe emotional highs and lows that come fromdealing with frail residents with a variety ofillnesses. From time to time, you will be dealing withresidents who have a neurological disorder calledParkinson’s. Your interest in learning more aboutthe unique characteristics of this disease will helpyou understand and better meet the special needsof your Parkinson’s residents and their families.

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